However, there are a few people who claim that “nika” is enough to legitimize a marriage, and that there is no need to get legal recognition. In some extreme cases, they even refuse to read “nika” to couples who have already got marriage certificates, thus interfering in the implementation of the Marriage Law. As a result, some incidents of premature marriages or bigamy took place in Xinjiang. In the Regulations of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on the Protection of the Legitimate Rights and Interests of Women and Children promulgated in 1985, it is clearly stated that “religious interference in marriage is banned, and marriages using religious ceremonies to replace civil registration are null”. At present, religious activities in most areas of Xinjiang are basically normal. However, in some localities, religion is still used to interfere in the administrative and judicial affairs, education, marriage, and family planning, or to interfere in people's freedom of religious belief by forcing non-believers to convert. In some cases, the abolished religious feudalist privileges and oppressive and exploitative system are restored, and religious taxes are imposed. Sometimes, new religious sites are built without approval from the administrative authorities in the government, and underground Islamic schools are run illegally. All of these have severely affected local social stability and economic growth, as well as the proceeding of normal religious activities.
VII. Coordinated Development of Ethnic Relations
- 1. Policy Mechanism to Coordinate Ethnic Relations
Xinjiang is home to multiple ethnic groups living in compact communities since ancient times. Inter-ethnic exchanges dated back to a long time ago. However, in the class society based on private ownership of means of production, the ruling class pursued a policy of ethnic and class oppression. With the estrangement, discrimination and hatred among ethnic groups, inter-ethnic conflicts and wars happened from time to time. Following the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, democratic reform and socialist transformations were carried out, the thousands of years' long ethnic oppression and class exploitation system was abandoned, the CPC's ethnic equality and unity policy was implemented comprehensively, and regional ethnic autonomy was put in place, thus bringing fundamental changes to the inter-ethnic relations in Xinjiang and gradually forming the socialist ethnic relations of equality, unity and mutual assistance. The Chinese government always believes that ethnic equality is the prerequisite and foundation Té verde chino en hangzhou for ethnic unity. It is provided in the Constitution and other relevant laws of China that ethnic equality and unity are the basic principles and fundamental policies for the resolution of ethnic issues. In Xinjiang, people of different ethnic groups equally enjoy civil rights and all other democratic rights and freedoms prescribed by law, such as the right to elect and stand for election, the right to the freedom of religious belief, the right to education, the right to use and develop their own ethnic written and spoken languages, and the right to maintain or reform their own ethnic customs and habits, as well as the right to manage their internal ethnic affairs through the system of regional ethnic autonomy.